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ABBOTTABAD

Located at a height of 4,120 feet (1256 m) above sea level, and 100 kilometres from Rawalpindi, Abbottabad is one of the most scenic and beautiful cities of Pakistan. Surrounded by pine abundant mountains and refreshing green hills of Sarban, it is one of the best-known hill resorts of Pakistan. The romantic weather of Abbottabad attracts thousands of visitors each year. The city was  once called "The City of the Maple Tree", for its large Maple trees that lines the road sides, but were sacrificed for the sake of widening the roads. Allama Iqbal wrote his famous poem "abr" (cloud) , when he visited Abbottabad in 1904 and got inspired by the beauty and grandeur of Abbottabad.

Although, Abbottabad today is a thriving business and tourism city, it is traditionally a military city. Besides the prestigious Pakistan Military Academy (PMA) in a nearby village of Kakul, Abbottabad is home to three regimental centres of Pakistan Army and Army School of Music. The PMA provided fame to Abbottabad for many years, prior to the recent development of the city, from a non-industrial backward area, to a busy modern business, economic and academic centre. The city takes it roots from the British India, when Major James Abbott came this way in 1853 after the annexation of Punjab into the British dominion and laid the foundation of a military cantonment. He also became the first Deputy Commissioner of Hazara Division. By 1901 the population of the town and cantonment had grown to around 7,764, which today stands at 300,000. Abbottabad remained the dominating district till 1976, when one of its tehsils Mansehra was given the status of district, which now consist of Mansehra and Batagram Tehsils. Subsequently in July 1991, Haripur Tehsil was separated from Abbottabad and made district. Thus only the Tehsil Abbottabad remained, which was declared as district. Major Abbott was so mesmerized by the beauty of the area that when leaving Abbottabad with a nostalgia a, he wrote a poem expressing his love and affection for the place he founded.

Abbottabad lies in an area which has its past connected to era of Greco-Bactrian kings. The coins discovered from the Hazara tract suggest that the area was inhabited in first century B.C. Located on N-5, the Karakoram Highway (KKH), Abbottabad is the junction point from where one can go to places like Hunza, Gilgit, Skardu and Indus Kohistan of the Karakorum Range. One can also reach from here to Swat, Dir and Chitral of the Hindukush Range or can approach to Naran, Lake Saif-ul-Muluk, Shogran and Babusar Pass of the Himalayan Range. Neelum, Lipa and Jhelum Valleys are also connected through Abbottabad. It is where the hills start. While other hill stations are deserted during winter this place has visitors due to its bracing weather all year around. The town has beautiful gardens and tall tree lined roads: splendid stretches of turf with plenty of room for polo, football, hockey and golf. One can see endangered magpies, shikras (falcons) and occasionally a golden eagle flying up there.

After independence in 1947, the town became a haven for seeking knowledge. Today, it is home to prestigious institutions of learning like the Ayub Medical College, Burn Hall School, and Abbottabad Public School. Ten miles up from Abbottabad is a teaching hospital. Before independence, Albert Victor Unaided High School and a Municipal Anglo-Vernacular High School were good educational institution in the town.

Pakistan Military Academy (or PMA) is located at Kakul near Abbottabad. The Academy is equivalent to Sand Hurst or West Point and provides training to the officers of Pakistan Army. The academy has three training battalions and twelve companies. It is due to the high training standards that this academy has achieved that cadets of more than 34 countries are imparted military training in this institution. The location standard of training and the grooming of this cradle of leadership is worth seeing. It is universally regarded as one of the finest military academies in the world, with strong associations with other leading military academies and institutions across the world.

Abbottabad is at its best in the Spring season when low flying clouds play hide and seek with the towering hills surrounding the city. There is a nip in the air, with frosty mornings and chilly evenings. While the country side wears a lush green overcoat crested with thousands of colourful flowers. Besides fruit trees of apricot, pear, peach, plum and apple provide an adorable look to the otherwise romantic landscape. Environment is tranquil, pollution free and quiet. One finds countless attractions spread around the town. There are meadows here and there, grassy stretches, wild flowers and walking tracks. Go for climbing, trekking, rock repelling or explore Thandiani or Shinkiari valleys. Further north; go to the black mountain near Oghi or to see the Asokan inscriptions on boulders near base of Bareri Hill close to Mansehra. Or just sit on top of a hillock overlooking Ilyasi Mosque and count yourself lucky for being there. Shimla Pahari is the highest place in the Abbottabad city offers all round view of the whole city. It can be an easy walk from the main Abbottabad city. Beside its lofty pine trees, there still remain towering cedar trees at some places, specially in the cantonment area. Upon visit to the Frontier Force Regimental Centre Officers' Mess, the webmaster Pakistanpaedia found a cedar tree planted in 1850s, planted during Major James Abbot times. The branches of the tree are so heavy that supports have to be provided, lest these droop on the ground

While the entire valley is breathtaking in its splendor and beauty, nothing can be better than the watching the sunrise over snow clad Thandiani, a 2,400 meters high hill feature located some 30 kilometres from Abbottabad. The name "Thandiani" means cold in the local language. It is a small plateau surrounded by pine forests. The drive to Thandiani from Abbottabad is one with lovely views on both sides of the road. There are some most beautiful glades on the way to Thandiani. The road rises gradually above Abbottabad. In the past, on the way to Thandiani, along with tall majestic pine trees one comes across groups of monkeys, though due deforestation and expanding population, their population is fast dwindling. Kalapani at 23 kilometres from Abbottabad has a beautiful local Dak bungalow. Hule Ka Danna is about two kilometres North of Thandiani. It is one of the most beautiful glades in the region. Thandiani offers lush green lovely sight. Small colorful flowers bloom here and there. It looks like someone has covered the mountains with green velvet layers and the flowing water channels increase many fold its splendor and majesty. Every scene is lovely on its own. At night the lights of Abbottabad and Azad Kashmir are clearly visible. To the east beyond the Kunhar River may be seen the snow covered mountain ranges of Kashmir, to the North and North East, the mountains of Kohistan and Kaghan are sighted, and to the North West are the snowy ranges of Swat and Chitral. A well defined and common walking trail leads from Thandiani to Murree through well wooded and attractive country (with an overnight stay in the way). In this very touristy area, apart from spectacular sights what one comes across are kindnesses from any thing but ordinary people of the area. Locals suggest to keep a lemon and suck on it while walking hard and long in hills, since it gives strength and quenches thrust.

Ilyasi Mosque, located close to the PMA,  is renowned for its round the year natural fresh water. The mosque is built over a stream of water that flows from the mountain. In front of it is a little pond-like area in which people can ride paddle driven boats. This mosque is also famous for its different architectural design. The water running from various springs is sacred for many of the people. A very important and delicious charm of Ilyasi Mosque is 'Hot Pakorras' - made from grinded grams, onions, chilies and fried in hot sizzling oil

District in PAKISTAN




District Profiles
Pakistan has four provinces North West FrontierSindhPunjab, Province and Balochistan.


Each Province is further divided into districts. There are 34 districts in punjab, 16 in Sindh, 26 in Balochistan and 24 in NWFP.
peshawar.jpg
Districts Of NWFP
1. Peshawar
2. Charsada
3. Mardan
4. Swabi
5. Bunner
6. Swat
7. Shangla
8. Malakand
9. Kohistan
10. Batagram
11. Mansehra
12. Abbottabad
13. Haripur
14. Chitral
15. Upper Dir
16. Lower Dir
17. Nowshera
18. Kohat
19. Hangu
20. Karak
21. Bannu
22. Lakki Marwat
23. D.I. Khan
24. Tank

punjab5.gif
 Punjab
1. Attock
2. Bhakkar
3. Bahawalnagar
4. Bahawalpur
5. Chakwal
6. Dera Ghazi Khan
7. Faisalabad
8. Gujrat
9. Gujranwala
10. Jhang
11. Hafizabad
12. Khanewal
13. Lahore
14. Lodhran
15. Layyah
16. Mandi-Bahaudddin
17. Multan
18. Mianwali
19. Muzaffargarh
20. Narowal
21. Okara
22. Pakpattan
23. Rawalpindi
24. Jhelum
25. Khushab
26. Kasur
27. Rahimyarkhan
28. Rajanpur
29. Sahiwal
30. Sargodha
31. Sheikhupura
32. Gujrat
33. Toba Tek Singh
34. Vehari

karachi8.jpg
 Sindh 
1. Karachi
2. Hyderabad
3. Badin
4. Thatta
5. Dadu
6. Sukkur
7. Ghotki
8. Khairpur
9. Nawabshah
10. Noshero Feroz
11. Tharparkar
12. Mirpurkhas
13. Sanghar
14. Larkana
15. Jacobabad
16. Shikarpur

balochistan11.gif
Balochistan
1. AWARAN
2. BARKHAN
3. BOLAN
4. CHAGAI
5. DERABUGTI
6. GAWADAR
7. JAFFARABAD
8. JHALMAGSI
9. KALAT
10. KECH
11. KHARAN
12. KOHLU
13. KHUZDAR
14. KILLA ABDULLAH
15. KILLA SAIFULLAH
16. LASBELA
17. LORALAI
18. MASTUNG
19. MUSAKHEL
20. NASIRABAD
21. PANJGUR
22. PISHIN
23. QUETTA
24. SIBI
25. ZHOB
26. ZIARAT

PAKISTAN

Flag of Pakistan
Pakistan Flag
Father of Nation

Quaid-i-Azam

Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Independence Day
14 August 1947
National Anthem

Approved in June, 1954 
Verses Composed by
Hafeez Jullundhri 
Tune Composed by
Ahmed G. Chagla 
Duration
80 seconds

Play National Anthem
(instrumental)
Introduction
Pakistan is an Islamic Republic (Official name: Islamic Republic of Pakistan) and its capital is Islamabad. Pakistan has four provinces: Baluchistan, North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Punjab and Sindh. Their respective capitals are: Quetta, Peshawar,Lahore and Karachi . In addition to these provinces is the Federally Administered Northern Area (FANA), which is divided into the districts of Diamer, Ghanche, Ghizer, Gilgit and Skardu. There are also seven Federally Administered Tribal Areas. (FATA).

Government
Pakistan has a federal structure. Parliament consists of the Lower House (National Assembly) and the Upper House (Senate). Members of the National Assembly are directly elected and their term of office is five years. The National Assembly determines the major policy issues and passes an annual budget and legislation. It elects the Prime Minister from among its members.
The Prime Minister forms the cabinet from among members of the Assembly and the Senate. Provinces have their own elected legislative assemblies and Chief Ministers. The Provincial Assemblies elect the majority of the members of the Upper House. 
Facts and Figures
The national language is Urdu, while the official language is English. Some of the main regional languages include Sindhi, Baluchi, Punjabi and Pushto.
Pakistan has a Population of over 130 million. At present, the growth rate is 2.8 percent per annum. The major cities are Karachi (10 million),Lahore (5.5 million),Faisalabad (2 million), Rawalpindi (928,000), Islamabad (340,286). Other cities include Peshawar, Quetta, Rawalpindi, Hyderabad, Multan and Sialkot. Major religions are Muslim (97%), Hindu (1.5%), Christian (1%) and several other minorities.
Area
Total Area: 796,095 Sq. Km
  • Punjab Province: 205,344 Sq. Km
  • Sindh Province: 140,914 Sq. Km
  • North West Frontier Province (NWFP): 74,521 Sq. Km
  • Balochistan Province: 347,190 Sq. Km
  • Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA): 27,220 Sq. Km
  • Islamabad (Capital): 906 Sq. Km

Map of Pakistan

Map of Pakistan
(Area: 796,095 Sq. Km)
Land Boundaries

Total:
 6,774 km
Afghanistan: 2,430 km
China: 523 km
India: 2,912 km
Iran: 909 km
Transport

Total length of Roads

228,206 km. (approx.)
    Pakistan Railway Network
8,775 km. (approx.)
    Railway Stations
781
Education
Literacy rate is about 55.1% (2004). Some facts about educational institutes are:
  • Primary schools: 150,963
  • Middle schools: 14,595
  • High schools: 9,808
  • Arts & science colleges: 798
  • Professional colleges: 161
  • Universities: 35 (10 in Private sector)
Health
Some basic facts about health facilities are:
  • Hospitals: 830
  • Beds: 86,921
  • Doctors(registered): 74,229
  • Dentists(registered): 2,938
  • Nurses(registered): 22,810
National Flower is Jasmine, other trees include Pine, Oak, Poplar, Deodar, Maple, Mulberry. Some popular animal species are The Pheasant, Leopard, Deer, Ibex, Chinkara, Black buk, Neelgai, Markhor, Marcopolo sheep, Green turtles, River & Sea fish, Crocodile, Water Fowls.
Attractions
Pakistan has large number of beautiful places and attractions to visit. Populartourist destinations during holiday seasons are like Murree, Quetta, Swat Valley, Hunza, Ziarat, Kaghan, Chitral and Gilgit.
Pakistan also has a long history of different cultures and traditions. Some of the popular and well-knownarchaeological sites are Mohenjo Daro, Harappa, Taxila, Kot Diji and Mehr Garh.
Economy
Central Bank is State Bank of Pakistan. Other Banks include National Bank of Pakistan, Habib Bank Ltd,. Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd., Allied Bank of Pakistan Ltd., First Woman Bank, Mehran Bank and the Bank of Punjab. Agricultural Development Bank of Pakistan, Federal Bank for Co-operatives, Industrial Development Bank of Pakistan, The Punjab Provincial Co-operative Bank, Banker's Equity and National Development Finance Corporation.
As an agricultural Pakistan produces different varieties of crops. Some of the major crops are cotton, wheat, rice and sugarcane. Total cropped area constitute around 22.14 million hectares of the total area. The average per capita income is $460 (approx).
Major exports include raw cotton and cotton products, rice, fish and fish products, carpets and rugs, leather and leather goods, sports and surgical goods. Major imports include tea, petroleum and its products, edible oils, chemical fertilizers, milk and milk foods, agricultural machinery, transport equipment, medicines, iron and steel. Major trading partners are the USA, Japan, Germany, UK, Hong Kong, Saudi Arabia and China.
Mt. Godwin Austin (K-2)

Mt. Godwin Austin (K-2)

Famous Glaciers

Siachin:
 75 km.
Batura: 55 km.
Baltoro: 62 km.
Deserts

Thar
: Sindh province
Cholistan: Punjab province
Thal: Punjab province
Natural Resources
Northern areas of Pakistan are blessed with some of the tallest peaks and mountains in the world in the Great Himalyians. The most popular and renowned peak is K-2 as known also Mt. Godwin Austin. Its height is about 28,250 ft. or 8611 meters which makes its 2nd highest peak in the World after Mount Everest. Other mountains include well-known Nanga Parbat of about 26,660 ft./8126 meters (8th in World) and Gasherbrum about 26,470 ft./8068 meters (11th in World).
Some of the famous mountain passes are The Khyber Pass, The Kurram Pass, The Tochi Pass, The Gomal Pass, The Bolan Pass, The Lowari Pass, The Khunjrab Pass.
Pakistan has 5 major rivers, these are
  • The Indus: 2896 km.
  • Jhelum: 825 km.
  • Chenab: 1242 km.
  • Ravi: 901 km.
  • Sutlej: 1551 km.
Some of the famous lakes are Manchar, Keenjar, Saif-ul-Maluk, Hanna. Major damsinclude Tarbela Dam (largest mud built dam is the world), Mangla Dam, Warsak Dam.

Media
Following media statistics can be observed for the coverage of the information and events across the country.
  • Print Media
    • Dailies: 424
    • Weeklies: 718
    • Fortnightlies: 107
    • Monthlies: 553
  • News Agencies
    • APP (official)
    • PPI & NNI (Pvt)
  • Electronic Media
    • Pakistan Television: Five TV centres at Islamabad, Lahore, Peshawar, Quetta and Karachi, covering 87% of the population.
    • Registered TV sets: 2,823,800.
    • Viewership: 115 million.
    • Radio stations: Total 23, Home services in 20 languages.External services cover 70 countries in 15 languages.
    • Private TV/Radio: Radio stations: 3, TV transmitter channels: 4, Private News Agencies: 2

TANAWAL


Tanawal

Tanawal is a beautiful valley surrounded by the mountains and natural beauty. The TANAWAL Area basically is famous because of the TANOLI's. Tanoli's are the people and residents of the TANAWAL Area.
The Tanawal area consists of two parts:
  • Upper TANAWAL
  • Lower TANAWAL
Upper TANAWAL:
The main city (suburb) in the Upper TANAWAL Area is Lasan Nawab. It encompasses many other villages too.
Lower TANAWAL:
Sherwan is the main suburb in the Lower TANAWAL Area. It is located approximately 37 km away from Abbottabad City. Other villages in the Lower TANAWAL Area are Pind Kargu Khan, Khutyala, Sandu Gali, Chakuli, Hal, Bheer, Pind Gali etc.

Tanoli


The Tanolis (Taniwal or Tanawalis) ( تنولی ) are a prominent and famous Muslim Pashtun tribe residing mainly in Amb Hazara Division of the North-West Frontier Province Pakistan And Some Tanoli tribes still live in Gardaiz and Ghazni (both cities of Afghanistan
They claim to have migrated from a place called "Tanubal River" in Afghanistan Some Tanoli tribes still live in Gardaiz and Ghazni (both cities of Afghanistan)Tanolis came to Swat from Afghanistan after the invasions of Sultan Sabuktagin They came to form a new state. The head of the Swat state at that time was Anwar Khan Tanoli.
Contemporary Tanolis are not a singular tribe but a collection of smaller groups which consists of those who call themselves Tanolis because they have resided in an area called Tanawal and those who are sub-groups, septs or clans of different Pashtun tribes representing major Afghan khels (sub tribes) in the State of Tanawal.

T A N O L I'S ARRIVAL IN NWFP:

The Tanolis entered the North-West Frontier Province history from the early 13th century,
Charles Allen referred to them in his book Men who made the North-West Frontier as "the extremely hostile and powerful Tanolis of the Tanawal Mountains, brave and hardy and accounted for the best swordsmen in Hazara."
The Yousafzai tribe came to Swat in approximately 1450 and began fighting with former Pushtun tribes of Afridi Tanoli Swati and Dilazak After several bloody battles between the Tanolis and the Yousafzais Tanoli Sultan Ameer Khan was martyred while fighting with Yousafzais at Topi near Swabi The Tanolis were pushed to the eastern bank of river Indus.

Tanolis migrated to the Tanawal in 1472 and defeated the Rajputs and Rajas After gaining hold in the area the Tanoli jirga appointed Zabardast Khan as the head of the state Tanawal.

FAMOUS PERSONALITIES IN HISTORY: (PRIDE OF TANOLI TRIBE)


Sardar Zabardast Khan/ Suba Khan Tanoli 
In AD 1752 the Tanoli Chief Sardaar Zabardast Khan allied with fellow Afghan, and King of AfghnistanAhmed Shah Abdali, in his conquest of India. His renown was such, that he gained the title of Suba Khan from Ahmed Shah Abdali for his bravery in the historical battle against the Marathas at Panipat, where two hundred and fifty thousand strong army of Marathas were famously defeated by just sixty thousand of Abdali's soldiers and allied Muslim tribes. His later grandson, Mir Nawab Khan saw the Durrani empire crumbling and defeated the Durranis, thus freeing his kingdom of their control, however, in this battle he was killed by Sardaar Azim Khan.
Mir Sar-Buland Khan 
During the Governorship of the Sikh general Hari Singh Nalwa, Mir Sar-Buland Khan Tanoli, was very rebellious towards him. He allied with Mir Painda Khan and Muhammad Khan Tareen as well as chiefs of the Pakhtun Jadun tribes against them. Whilst engaged in one battle, Hari Singh Nalwa shot dead his son Sher Muhammad Khan. He continued his rebellion regardless and unrelented in his repeat incursions against them, though without success against the militarily superior opposition. At one point, he and Mir Painda Khan besieged and conquered Darband fort from the Sikh chief Sardar Gordat Singh.
Mir Painda Khan
Mir Painda Khan is famed for his staunch rebellion against Maharaja Ranjit Singh's Governors of Hazara. He was the son of Mir Nawab Khan, who defeated the Durranis and freed his kingdom from their influence.

From about 1813, he spent a life long rebellion against the Sikhs, who, realising the potential of his rebellion, set up forts at strategic locations to keep him in check. Hari Singh Nalwa took this initiative during his governorship.
Painda Khan's relentless rebellion against the Sikh empire, cost him a major portion of his Kingdom, leaving only his twin capitals Amb and Darband. However, this deterred him less and appeared to increase his resistance against the Sikh government.
The District Gazetteer of the North-West Frontier Province (p138) confirms, "Painda Khan, played a considerable part in the history of his time and vigorously opposed the Sikhs."
Mir Painda Khan set the tone for the regional resistance against Sikh rule. Men who made the North-West Frontier (Charles Allen, Abacus 2001, p139) attests,
"There was a long history of conflict between Jehandad Khan's family and the Sikhs, and the name of his father Painda Khan, was said to be 'magic to the ears of the people of Hazara' because of the struggles he fought on behalf of his 'poor circumscribed and rugged principality' against the Sikhs. Abbot was aware that before his death Painda Khan had made his son (Jehandad Khan) swear never to trust his safety to any ruler."
Eventually, realising that the Heroic Tanoli Khan would not be subdued by force, General Dhaurikal Singh, commanding officer of the Sikh troops in Hazara, had Painda Khan poisoned to death in September 1844. He is still revered in Hazara today as a "Heroic Warrior King of the People".
In 1828 Mir Painda Khan gifted the State of Phulra to his brother Mir Madad Khan.
Mir Jehandad Khan Tanoli
This Tanoli chief deserves special mention as the son of a famous Tanoli hero of Amb Darband Hazara, Mir Painda Khan.
It is mentioned in Men who made the North-West Frontier (Charles Allen, Abacus 2001, p139) that
"Of all the tribal chiefs of Hazara, the most powerful said to be Jehandad Khan of the Tanoli, whose land straddled both banks of the Indus and whose fellow-tribesmen were 'brave and hardy and accounted for the best swordsmen in Hazara'. There was a long history of conflict between Jehandad Khan's family and the Sikhs, and the name of his father Painda Khan, was said to be 'magic to the ears of the people of Hazara' because of the struggles he fought on behalf of his 'poor circumscribed and rugged principality' against the Sikhs. Abbot was aware that before his death Painda Khan had made his son (Jehandad Khan) swear never to trust his safety to any ruler."
This was a strong testament to the physical, political power and heroic background of the House of Tanoli which continued throughout the history of the tribes ancestry.
Mir Jehandad Khan is further mentioned in the same source as,
"Jehandad Khan - a good looking young man of 26 years, tall and slender, with remarkably large and fine eyes - rode into Abbott's encampment surrounded by an escort of horsemen clad in shirts of mail and steel skull caps, handsomely mounted and equipped, who made a most picturesque display....the bystanders, who regarded the Chief with great awe, were thunderstruck.."
In 1852, Jehandad Khan was summonsed by the President of the Board of Administration (who travelled to Hazara to see the Khan) in relation to a murder enquiry of two British civilians in his lands. It is mentioned in the above source (p203,p204) that
"Jehan Dad Khan, the head of the Clan, and his minister Boostan Khan...knowing himself charged for his life, with the air of a prince sat down....answered all questions in an easy off hand way that looked very much like innocence. I was glad when the examination was over and the men let go, for they had a following of five or six hundred men, all stalwart fellows who had accompanied their Chief..."
The President ended the talk by threatening him that, "If you refuse to give up the murderers...I will come with an army to burn your villages and give your country to another." It is said that the Khan replied, folding hands and with some fun replied with his elders, "We should consider your presence (in our kingdom) an honor, but our country is a 'rather difficult one' for your army." This famed statement was the talk of the day and remembered by many locals of Hazara even to this day as a heroic answer to a staunch threat from a powerful official.
His son, Nawab Bahadur Sir Muhammed Akram Khan was conferred the title Nawab Bahadur by the British Raj.
Nawab Sir Muhammad Akram Khan 
The next chief of the Tanolis and son of Mir Jahandad Khan was Nawab Sir Akram Khan (1868 - 1907). He was a popular chief and it was during his tenure that the fort at Shergarh was constructed, along with Dogah and Thakot. His rule was a peaceful time for Tanawal with no major conflicts.
Nawab Khanizaman khan 
Nawab Khanizaman Khan succeeded his father in taking over the reins of power in Tanawal in Amb. He helped the British in carrying out the [[Black Mountain]] (Kala Dhaka/Tur Ghar)expeditions.
us Muslim pashtoon tribe residing mainly in the district Mansehra & Abb

 The Tanolis are a prominent and famoot
tabad, Hazara division of NWFP Pakistan. They have a history that spans to the early 13th century since the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate. They have ruled the state of Amb of Hazara since the 13th century up until the wars with the Sikhs in the 19th century. They were frequently engaged in rebellions with successive rulers of the Delhi Sultanate as well as allying with Ahmed Shah Abdali in his conquest of India.
Charles Allen in his book referred to them as "the extremely hostile and powerful Tanolis of the Tanawal Moutains".
They were also the last ruling dynasty of the State of Amb.
 
"Many Mouths, Many sayings" Many people tried to link the tanoli with their own tribe or another one else. but it's clear and accepted from the history.
Tanoli are not Jungua.
Tanoli can't be Mughals.
Tanoli are not Rajas.
Tanoli are not Abbasi.
Tanoli did't come with Greek Alaxander.

Tanoli migrated from Tonbol Pass or Taanal Pass to the Gardeez and Ghazni (Cities of Afghanistan) in 1100 AD. In 950 AD when Sultan Amir Sabuktigin invaded on Hindustan, Tanoli tribe came with his army and resided in the valley of Swat and Buner. Anwar Khan Tanoli was appointed as head or cheif of the tribe by Sultan Amir Sabuktigin.

In 1400 Tanoli tribe was prominent alliance of Ahamed Shah Abdali, Tanoli fought the battle of Pani Pat aginst Marrata. The Cheif, Zaberdast Khan Tanoli gained the title of Suba Khan from Ahmed Shah Abdale because of his bravery and boldness in the battle of Pani Pat.

Tanoli Cheif Ameer Khan martyred in battle aginst Yousfzai trib. Yousfzai occupied the area of swat and buner and compled the tanoli tribe to the estern bank of indus river.
They established the state of Amb and ruled sice 1973. They are also Khans of many villages namly Sherwan, Khotaila, Pind Kargu Khan, Kripplian, Chaamid, Shingree, Kokal, Gaajul etc of district Manshera, Abbottabad and Haripur. Some Tanoli families are still in Swat and Mingora. Few "Khails of Tanoli" are also sattled in Balochistan, Sindh and Punjab. The genesis of tanoli leads to the Prophet Hazrat Yaqoob (Halesalam), from this reference they are pashton.
Tanoli has great contribution in Tehreek-e-Pakistan & Tehmeer-e-Pakistan. They always vote & support the Muslim League being a loyal pakistani. They have also major role in the development of country, they scrified their homes and native lands for the development of country in the form of Terbela Dam.
Origins and History
Tanolis are generally divided into two groups, the Hindwal Tanolis and the Pulwal Tanolis. The Hindwal Tanolis/Tanawli were well known for ruling their state of Amb until the 19th century wars with the Sikhs. But later relations between them improved. The Tanolis entered the North-West Frontier Province history from the early 13th century when.
The Tanoli are a tribe of the Tanawal valley region in the Hazara region of Pakistan's North-West Frontier Province and Afghanistan
Although "not usually acknowledged as Pathans, the Tanoli have by long association become assimilated with them in manners, customs, and character."The tribal and cultural practices of the Tanolis closely resemble those of the Pathans". Tribally allied with the Pathans, the Tanoli participated in the frontier wars with the British and in Charles Allen's analysis of those wars, the Tanoli are described as being "extremely hostile" and "brave and hardy and accounted for the best swordsmen in Hazara.
Names,
The Tanoli are also known as Tanawal, for the name of the river. The British Census included several variant forms of the name: Taniwal Tanole Tanaoli, Tanol, Tol, Tholi, Tahoa, Tarnoli,Tanis,Tanai.
Homelands,
The Tanoli were first encountered by Westerners around 1700 "in the trans Indus basin of the Mahaban from which they were driven across the Indus by the Yusufzai" tribe. By the late 19th century the Tanaoli had settled the Tanawal tract in the west center of the district between Abbottabad and the Indus, and in the extensive hill country between the river and the Urash plains.
According to the Settlement Report of Hazara, compiled by Major Wace (1872), the Tanolis, who founded a state named Amb, had already established their authority over Tanawal. The voluminous Urdu copy of the settlement report of Hazara contains many passages in its historical resume of the area. In a number of maps drawn at the time and enclosed in the report, showing Hazara under the Mughals and under the Durranis, the Amb state has been shown as Mulk-i-Tanawal. The original existence of that Mulk is as old as the middle period of the great Afghan invasions of India.
The Tanoli are divided into two major sub-tribes: the Hindwal and the Pallal. The latter occupies the northern portion of the Tanawal tract, and, until the dissolution of the princely states in 1968, constituted the semi-independent principality of Amb.
According to Tanoli tradition (preserved in a commentary based on an 1881/1891 census report) they are named after a place in "Afghanistan" (not to be confused with the present-day state of Afghanistan)
Apical ancestor,
As is also the case for all other ethnic groups of the region, tracing their lineage to an apical ancestor is crucial to the Tanoli's sense of identity.
The Tanoli consider themselves to descend from one Amir Khan, a Barlas Mughal who (so says their tradition) arrived in the Tanawal valley with his sons around 1500, having crossed the Indus river to get there.
The details of this tradition?as preserved in the Tarikh-i-Tanaolian ("History of Tanolies")?runs as follows: Upon defeating a Hindu king Jaipala, one Sultan Sabuktagin conquered the region up to Attock on the Indus. The victor then resettled five thousand Mughals, Syeds and Afghans in Swat where Din Khan Mughal, an Anawar, was appointed the ruler. The ancestors of the Tanoli eventually settled in Mahaban. Some time later, in search of land, they crossed the Indus river under the command of Maulvi Mohammad Ibrahim, and captured territory from the Turkic peoples settled there. Among the new settlers was Amir Khan Beerdewa and his six sons (Pall Khan, Hind Khan, Thakar Khan, Arjin Khan and Kul Khan) who settled the Tanawal region; the six clans or sub-tribes are allegedly named after the six sons of Beerdewa.
This claim of descent of Tanolis is also mentioned in The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British and Foreign India, China, and Australia (1841), in the following words; "There is one chief who, though not an Eusofzye, yet from his position in the midst of, and intimate connection with, the Eusofzyes, and his singular history and character, must not be omitted in a description of the Eusofzye country. Paieendah Khan, of Tanawul, is a Mogul of the Birlas tribe, the same from which the Ameer Timoor was descended. All record of the first settlement in Tanawul of his family is lost, and it has long ago broken off all connection with the other branches of the Birlas, which are still to be found in Turkestan."
The Imperial Gazetteer of India also confirms this line of descent; it states, "Its (Tanawul's) real rulers, however, were the Tanawalis, a tribe of Mughal descent divided into two septs, the Pul-al and Hando-al or Hind-wal."
The Sikh records of the region also confirm this line of descent of the Tanolis. They state, "The family of Paeendah Khan is a branch of the Birlas, a Mogul House, well known in history. All record of its first settlement in Tanawul is lost. It may perhaps have been left there by the Emperor Baber. Among the list of whose nobles, the name Birlas is found."
Some historians have mentioned the Pathan origin of the tanoli family of the Nawab of Amb. In 'The Golden Book of India', Sir Roper Lethbridge on page 328 states about Nawab Muhammad Akram Khan, Sir, K.C.S.I The Nawab Bahadur is Chief of Amb, on the right bank of the Indus, where he and his ancestors have long been independent. Belongs to a Pathan (Muhammadan) family....
Another authoritative source, namely 'Selections from the Records of the Government of India, Foreign Department'(1856), states about the Tanolis; "It (Tannawal) is inhabited chiefly by the Turnoulees, a Tribe of martial Puthans."

The commentary to the 1881/1891 census narrates this tradition but it observes that "[however,] there can be little doubt that they are of [Indo-Iranian or Indo-European origin] and probably of Indian stock."

Some sources relate the Tanoli tribe to the Janjua Rajputs. They believe the Tanolis are offspring of one Raja Tanoli, son of Raja Mal. Raja Mal had five sons...Wir(Bhir), Jodh, Kahla, Tanoli, and Khaka. It is to be noted that the Tanolis do not support this theory and it is an exceptional case where a tribe recorded of Rajput decent by the Rajputs, denies such a connection.
History,
Mir Painda Khan,
Mir Painda Khan, son of Mir Nawab Khan (who defeated the Durranis), is famed for his rebellion against Maharaja Ranjit Singh's governors of Hazara. Painda Khan "played a considerable part in the history of his time and vigorously opposed the Sikhs."
From about 1813, Mir Painda Khan spent a life long rebellion against the Sikhs. Hari Singh Nalwa, the Sikh Governor of Maharaja Ranjit Singh to Hazara, took the initiative during his governorship of setting up forts at strategic locations to keep Painda Khan in check.
Painda Khan's rebellion against the Sikh empire cost him a major portion of his kingdom, leaving only the tract around Amb, with his twin capitals Amb and Darband. This increased his resistance against the Sikh government.
In 1828 Mir Painda Khan gifted the territory of Phulra as an independent Khanate to his brother Madad Khan, which later on was recognised by the British as a semi-independent Princely State.
Painda Khan was the Nawab of Amb who took over the valley of Agror in 1834, but in I841 it was restored by the Sikhs to Ata Muhammad, a descendant of Sad-ud-din.
General Dhaurikal Singh, commanding officer of the Sikh troops in Hazara, had Painda Khan poisoned to death in September 1844. Painda Khan is still revered in Hazara as a hero.
Major J. Abbott commented that 'During the first period of Painda Khan's career, he was far too vigorous and powerful to be molested by any neighbouring tribe, and when he began to fail before the armies and purse of the Sikh Government, he was interested in keeping upon the best terms with his northern neighbours of the Black Mountains.' He is further described by him as, 'a Chief renowned on the Border, a wild and energetic man who was never subjugated by the Sikhs.'

Mir Jehandad Khan
"Of all the tribal chiefs of Hazara, the most powerful [was] said to be Jehandad Khan of the Tanoli." His territories laid on both banks of the Indus, and, as the son of Painda Khan, Jehandad Khan was particularly well respected among his peoples.
When Sikh power was on the fall in 1845 Jehandad Khan blockaded the garrisons of no less than 22 Sikh posts in Upper Tanawal ; and when they surrendered at discretion, he spared their lives, as the servants of a fallen Empire. "The act, however, stood him afterwards in good stead; for, when Hazara was assigened to Maharaja Golab Singh, that politic ruler rewarded Jehandad Khan's humanity with the jagir of Koolge and Badnuck in Lower Tannowul."
As far as Jehandad Khans hereditary domain of Upper Tanawal, with the capital at Amb is concerned, the term 'jagir' has never been applicable to it. The British Government considered Upper Tannowul as a chiefship held under the British Government, but in which, as a rule, they did not possess internal jurisdiction. The Chief managed his own people in his own way without regard to British laws, rules or system. This tenure resembled that on which the Chiefs of Patiala, Jhind, Nabha, Kapurthala and others held their lands.
In 1852, Jehandad Khan was summoned by the president of the Board of Administration (who travelled to Hazara to see the Khan) in relation to a murder enquiry of two British officers in his lands. When the president threatened the Khan to give up the murderers or suffer the consequences (of burning down the villages and giving the region to another), the Khan is said to have replied "We should consider your presence (in our kingdom) an honour, but our country is a 'rather difficult one' for your army."
This response was the talk of the day and it is remembered by many locals of Hazara even to this day as a heroic answer.
He was son of Painda Khan. When he died, he left a nine years old boy: Muhammad Akram Khan.

Nawab Sir Muhammad Akram Khan
During the tenure Nawab Sir Akram Khan (K.C.S.I)(1868 - 1907), son of Jehandad Khan, the fort at Shergarh was constructed, along with Dogah and Shahkot Forts. His rule was a peaceful time for Tanawal with no major conflicts. He was later conferred the title Nawab Bahadur by the British Raj.
Not to be confused with Muhammad Akram (1817-1852), one of the sons of Dost Mohammad Khan.

Nawab Sir Muhammad Khanizaman Khan
Nawab Khanizaman Khan, son of Akram Khan, helped the British in carrying out the Black Mountain (Kala Dhaka/Tur Ghar) expeditions.
Malik Nawab Khan Tanoli
Malik Nawab Khan, of Lower Tanawal, is commented by Major J. Abbot as a "Brave man" in his book written on Abbottabad. Malik Nawab Khan was a learned man and an able soldier. He was a strong religious man. Malik Nawab Khan was among the fellow tribesmen of famous Mir Jehandad Khan.
Tanoli Sub Tribes
The Hindwal and Pallal are the major divisions of the tribe. The further sub?divisions of the tribe are:
Jamal. Ledhyal. Bohal. Saryal. Hedral. Bhujal. Abdwal. Jalwal. Baigal. Tekral. Pansial. Labhyal(Suba Khani). Matyal. Bainkaryal. Dairal. Sadhal. Judhal. Parwal. Khan khel. Majtal and Islam khani
Tanolis Today
Most members of the Tanoli tribe reside in the former state of Amb in the Hazara Division of the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan, in the cities of Abbottabad, Haripur and its district, Mansehra, Battagram and Kohistan districts. A branch of the Tanoli tribe also resides in Kashmir, mainly in Muzaffarabad and Srinagar. Tanolis are also living in some areas of Swabi,Khalabat, Nowshera, Rawalpindi, Gujar Khan and Sultanpur. A significant number of Tanolis also living in Karachi. There are also quite a few Tanoli families residing in the city of Queeta in the Balochistan Province. They dominate the Tanawal-Sherwan belt.
The principal language of the Tanoli is Hindko. Tanolis living in Pashtun dominated areas speak Pashto.
Notable Tanolis
  • Nawabzada Salahuddin Saeed Khan Tanoli, the present Nawab of Amb, Former Federal Minister Pakistan and five times Member of the National Assembly (1985-1999)
  • Habib-ur-Rehman Tanoli, North-West Frontier Province Minister for Local Government
  • Ayub Khan Tanoli, former Minister of Law, Education and Health
  • Ashraf Khan Tanoli, Former Advocate-General of Balochistan
  • Muhammad Younis Tanoli, Advocate-General of the North-West Frontier Province
  • Malik Rabnawaz Khan Tanoli, President of the UK's Kashmir Council
  • Professor Muftee Munibur Rehman, Chairman Central Royat Hillal Committee of Pakistan
  • Feroze Khan/Sanjay Khan/Fardeen Khan of Bombay film industry. Feroze's recent death revealed that his father was a Pathan called Sadiq Ali Khan Tanoli, whose family moved to Bangalore from Ghazni province in Afghanistan.
  • Abdul Waheed Khan Tanoli, D.I.G Frontier Police, Pakistan
  • cmdBrig ilyas khan Tanoli, Drictor bahria town
  • Cmd Pir Muhammad khan tanoli late hal kalu khan

Tanoli Areas

1. Upper Tanowl
2. Lower Tanowl
Amb was a small princely state in what is today the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. The state ceased to exist in 1969, when it was merged with the province of West Pakistan.
 
Amb was originally known as Tanawal and was the tribal homeland of the Tanoli people. The Nawabs of the Tanolis were best known for fighting against the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh. The Nawabs later established Amb as a princely state, ranking as a non-salute state under the British Raj. In 1947 the Nawab of Amb, Mohammad Farid Khan, acceded to Pakistan. In 1969, the state was incorporated into the North-West Frontier Province and in 1971 the royal status of the Nawab was abolished by the Government of Pakistan. The construction of the Tarbela Dam across the Indus River in the early 1970s resulted in much of Amb state being submerged by the reservoir.

Rulers of Amb
The state was ruled by a dynasty who originally held the title of Mir and in 1868 were granted the title of Nawab by the British Raj. A listing of the known rulers of Amb is provided here.
Tenure Rulers of Amb (Tanawal)
Unknown date - 1818 (Mir) Nawab Khan
1818 - 1840 (Mir) Payenda Khan
1840 - 1868 (Nawab) Jahandad Khan
1868 - 1907 (Nawab) Mohammad Akram Khan
1907 - 26th February 1936 (Nawab) Zaman Khan
26th February 1936 - 1971 (Nawab) Mohammad Farid Khan
1971 - 1973 (Nawab) Salahuddin Khan
1973 Royal status abolished
1. Upper Tanowl
  • Darband
  • Shere-Ghar
  • Oghi
  • Pind-kargoo Khan
  • Kripplian

2. Lower Tanowl
  • Kokal
  • Dobain
  • Jandakka
  • Khajal/Jaswalian
  • Sherwan
  • Chammad
  • Shenghree


There are numbers of book which contains information about Tanoli, but there are four books that are exclusively written on Tanoli and their background & history.
(Tanoli Tarikhi Aahina Main)


Tanolis In the Mirror of History, written by M. Ismail Khan Tanoli.
 
(Tarikh-e-Tanawal)

History of Tanwal, written by Muhammad Fida.

 
(Al-Afghan Tanoli)

Tanoli Al-Afghan, written by Ghulam Nabi.

ABBOTTABAD

Abbottabad, a popular summer resort in the midst of spacious valleys, is surrounded by green hills and located at a distance of 116 km from Rawalpindi and 217 km from Peshawar. 

From a tourist point of view abbottabad is noted for its verdant parks, gardens, golf course and pine covered hills, apart from this it is full of educational institutions and Academies. Its importance lies in the fact that it serves as an important gateway to almost all-beautiful places in Pakistan. The formidable Karakorams & the enchanting Himalayas can be approached from Abbottabad. The importance of this city has diminished with the completion of Karakoram Highway because in the past the only track available to reach the majestic Karakoram, was through Babusar Pass, which in its turn, could only be approached through Abbottabad. In spite of this development, the city continues to be a transit city for tourists. Abbottabad is the junction from where one can go to places like Hunza, Gilgit, Skardu and Indus Kohistan, of the Karakoram Range. One can easily reach Swat, Swati Kohistan, Dir and Chitral of the Hindukush Range along with Naran, Saif-ul-Muluk, Shogran and Babusar Pass of the Himalayan Range. Neelum, Lipa and Jhelum Valley of beautiful Azad Kashmir are also connected through Abbottabad.
While other hill stations are deserted during winter this place is blessed with visitors due to the bracing winter season. The place has beautiful gardens like; Jinnah Garden, Ladies Garden etc maintained by the local Cantonment Board. The splendid stretch of turf promises plenty of room for polo, football, hockey and golf. At the back of the station towards the west is the Brigade Center, which is an ideal place ideal for walks and picnic.
The Cantonment area of Abbottabad is still very British. The European bungalows, the club, the church and cemetery are still there.
Abbottabad, apart from being famous for its educational institutions and Military Academy, also serves as the gateway to almost all beautiful places in Pakistan.
The formidable Karakorams, the enchanting HImalayas and the deadly Hindukush, can also be approached from Abbottabad.
Though the importance of the city has been diminished a little by the completion of Karakoram Highway because, in the past, the only track available to reach Karakoram was through Babusar Pass, which in its turn, could only be approached through Abbottabad.
In spite of this development, the city continues to be a transit city for the tourists. Abbottabad is the junction from where one can go to places like Hunza, Gilgit, Skardu and Indus Kohistan, of the Karakoram Range. One can reach Swat, Swati Kohistan, Dir and Chitral of the Hindukush Range. And one can approach Naran, Saif-ul-Muluk, Shogran and Babusar Pass of the Himalayan Range. Neelum, Lipa and Jhelum Valley of beautiful Azad Kashmir are also connected through Abbottabad.
While other hill stations are deserted during winter this place has visitors due to the bracing winter. The place has beautiful gardens, Jinnah Garden, Ladies Garden and another garden maintained by the Cantonment Board. To the splendid stretch of turf with plenty of room for polo, football, hockey and golf. At the back of the station to the west is the Brigade Centre, ideal for walks and picnic.
The Cantonment area of Abbottabad is still very British. The European bungalows, the club, the church and cementery are still there.
Abbottabad is an hour's drive from Nathia Gali, the summer capital of the North West Frontier Province, which is from Nathia Gali to Abbottabad is about 34 km dropping steeply through the beautiful valleys with few trees to the river bed.
Abbottabad is named after its founder James Abbot, Hazara's first British Deputy Commissioner. It is at a distance of 121 km from Islamabad via Hasan Abdal. It is 1220 meters above sea level and is situated at the crossroads of most of the areas of tourist interest in Pakistan like Nathiagali, Murree, Thandiani, Kaghan valley, Swat valley, Skardu, Gilgit and Khunjrab. Taxila, one of the most important archaeological treasures of the subcontinent is not very far from here. There are two hills towering above Abbottabad, Shimla Peak and Sarban Peak. There are very fine panoramic views of the town and its surroundings from Shimla Peak. The famous Pakistan Military Academy is on the hill to the north-east side of the town. Shimla Park located on a nearby hill with a pine forest is well worth a visit. Abbottabad has still a very British air with its European style bungalows, the club, the church and the cemetery
 
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