☆are Japanese cartoons and computer animation.
The word is the abbreviated pronunciation of "animation" in Japanese.
In English, the term is defined as a style of animation originating in Japan,
which often features colorful graphics, vibrant characters and action-filled plots
with fantastic or futuristic themes. The intended meaning of the term sometimes
varies depending on the context.
While the earliest known Japanese animation dates to 1917,
and many original Japanese animations were produced in the ensuing decades,
the characteristic anime style developed in the 1960s—notably with the work
of Osamu Tezuka—and became known outside Japan in the 1980s.
Anime, like manga, has a large audience in Japan and recognition
throughout the world. Distributors can release anime via television broadcasts,
directly to video, or theatrically, as well as online.
Both hand-drawn and computer-animated anime exist.
It is used in television series, films, video, video games, commercials,
and Internet-based releases, and represents most, if not all, genres of fiction.
As the market for anime increased in Japan, it also gained popularity in East and Southeast Asia.
Anime is currently popular in many different regions around the world.
HistoryAnime first arose at the start of the 20th century, when Japanese filmmakers experimented with the animation techniques also pioneered in France, Germany, the United States, and Russia.
The oldest known anime in existence first screened in 1917 – a two-minute clip of a samurai trying to test a new sword on his target, only to suffer defeat.
Early pioneers included Shimokawa Oten, Junichi Kouchi, and Seitaro Kitayama.
By the 1930s animation became an alternative format of storytelling to the live-action industry in Japan.
But it suffered competition from foreign producers and many animators, such as Noburo Ofuji and Yasuji Murata still worked in cheaper cutout not cel animation,
although with masterful results.Other creators, such as Kenzo Masaoka and Mitsuyo Seo, nonetheless made great strides in animation technique,
especially with increasing help from a government using animation in education and propaganda. The first talkie anime was Chikara to Onna no Yo no Naka,
produced by Masaoka in 1933. By 1940, numerous anime artists' organizations had risen, including the Shin Mangaha Shudan and Shin Nippon Mangaka.
During this time period, anime was extensively used as a channel for government propaganda.
The first feature length animated film was Momotaro's Divine Sea Warriors directed by Seo in 1945 with sponsorship by the Imperial Japanese Navy.
Influence on world cultureAnime has become commercially profitable in Western countries, as demonstrated by early commercially successful Western adaptations of anime, such as Astro Boy. The phenomenal success of Nintendo's multi-billion dollar Pokémon franchise was helped greatly by the spin-off anime series that, first broadcast in the late 1990s, is still running worldwide to this day. In doing so, anime has made significant impacts upon Western culture. Since the 19th century, many Westerners have expressed a particular interest towards Japan. Anime dramatically exposed more Westerners to the culture of Japan. Aside from anime, other facets of Japanese culture increased in popularity. Worldwide, the number of people studying Japanese increased. In 1984, the Japanese Language Proficiency Test was devised to meet increasing demand.
Even domestic animation industries had made attempts at emulating anime. Anime-influenced animation refers to non-Japanese works of animation that emulate the visual style of anime. Most of these works are created by studios in the United States, Europe, and non-Japanese Asia; and they generally incorporate stylizations, methods, and gags described in anime physics, as in the case of Avatar: The Last Airbender. Often, production crews either are fans of anime or are required to view anime. Some creators cite anime as a source of inspiration with their own series. Furthermore, a French production team for Oban Star-Racers moved to Tokyo to collaborate with a Japanese production team from Hal Film Maker. Critics and the general anime fanbase do not consider them as anime.
Some American animated television-series have singled out anime styling with satirical intent, for example South Park (with "Chinpokomon" and with "Good Times with Weapons"). South Park has a notable drawing style, itself parodied in "Brittle Bullet", the fifth episode of the anime FLCL, released several months after "Chinpokomon" aired. This intent on satirizing anime is the springboard for the basic premise of Kappa Mikey, a Nicktoons Network original cartoon. Even clichés normally found in anime are parodied in some series, such as Perfect Hair Forever.
Anime conventions began to appear in the early 1990s, during the Anime boom, starting with Project A-Kon, Anime Expo, Animethon, and Otakon. Currently anime conventions are held annually in various cities across the Americas, Asia, and Europe. Many attendees participate in cosplay, where they dress up as anime characters. Also, guests from Japan ranging from artists, directors, and music groups are invited. In addition to anime conventions, anime clubs have become prevalent in colleges, high schools, and community centers as a way to publicly exhibit anime as well as broadening Japanese cultural understanding.
Viewers may also pick up on Japanese terms either within or related to anime, though at times those words may take on different connotations. For instance, the Japanese term otaku is used as a term for anime fans beyond Japan, more particularly the obsessive ones. The negative connotations associated with the word in Japan have lessened in foreign context, where it instead connotes the pride of the fans.
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