With Reference to the Author
Hello, people close to me normally call me as estate agent Muhammad Hopper. Thank you so much for reading!
Turkey has realized economic difficulties and advantages in the last century but a gradual rise in the last century. The government has developed effective measures to support economic growth through the establishment of effective measures to overcome success obstacles. Unfortunately, the economy is affected by an inappropriate distribution of wealth affecting the general well-being. General satisfaction can be measured using various indices such gross domestic product per capita, GNI/capita, and GIvNI coefficient.
Although Turkey has realized recommendable economic growth, effective distribution of wealth has remained a critical challenge.
In the past century, Turkey has experienced a gradual rise in the economic growth, wealth creation, and improvement in the well-being just as many countries in the world. In this period, the country has transited from traditional and agricultural to the urban and industrial economy. After the Second World War, around the 1960s, the country experienced a rapid economic growth encouraged by the state's protection and provision of better services to the public. Another wave of the increase was recorded in the 1980s where the government was more open to exports and imports (?lu-AygÜn 460).
This increase declined in the 1990s due to the macroeconomic instabilities, corruption, and many other factors. The country has been increasing progressively in the GDP per capita growth. Over the past decade, the key driver of economic performance was household consumption accounting for about 70 percent of GDP. On average, it contributed 3.1 percent to the national economic growth. Other factors such as investment, exports, and imports contributed to the gross GDP (Metin-Ozcan, Ebru Voyvoda, and A. Erinç 244).
There were series of increase and decrease between 2003 and 2013. It means that theories used in the development policies had their merits and demerits (Fox 80). During the early years where the mercantilism theories were used, there was no increased growth as compared to the periods of market liberalization in the 1980s. In the short run, the mercantilists theories achieved their objectives of economic growth though in the long-run, as observed as a sluggish growth (Karabati and Zeynep 630). The liberalists period was marked by a sharp increase in the economic growth due to the expansion of markets and minimal government involvement in trade activities. However, it was also marked by sharp periods of decreased economic growth and wealth creation.
Graph showing Turkish GDP between 1981 and 2010
Turkeys economic growth is expected to increase, due to its favorable demographic outline and larger productivity increase at an average of 3.7% a year between 2013-30 (?lu-AygÜn 461). Greater improvements in the policy could produce substantially better results, but uncertainty remains about Turkeys future in terms of political and institutional framework, and its commitment to reform. This shows that in the next five years, the economic growth of Turkey is going to decrease from the present 5.1 to 3.9 percent on ten-year average (Metin-Ozcan, Ebru Voyvoda, and A. Erinç 245).
GINI coefficient is an indicator of the income distribution in the country. This is a number between zero and one. In the case where a country has a coefficient of one, then one group has all the income while the other group does not have income. In developed countries, there may be instances where the GDP and GNI per capita are cannot appropriately measure the wellbeing of a nation (Podder 427). These parameters do not evaluate the distribution of wealth particularly in situations where it is unequally distributed. The income is not well distributed in the country increasing the gap between the rich and poor populations. GINI coefficient of turkey from the year, 2000 has been 0.437 (Ovaska and Ryo 315). This shows that there is unequal balance in the income distribution. The government is struggling to ensure that this value goes down especially through the taxation regimes. However, the wealthy groups through the creation of barriers have frustrated the move.
According to Fox, many factors such as money and wealth creation contribute to the welfare of the society (80). Other the factors that are important determinants of welfare are health status, social connections, education and skills, jobs and earnings, subjective well-being, environmental quality, work-life balance, and housing. However, these factors are not included in the GDP or GNI per capita. This is where the Human Development Index (HDI) best suits the measurement of wellbeing. A comparative measure of life expectancy, literacy, education, standards of living, and quality of life for a country offers a real estimate of the wealth distribution (Metin-Ozcan, Ebru Voyvoda, and A. Erinç 245).
Turkey has been ranked number 69 out of 187 of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) members as per 2013 financial report. This is below the countries considered as advanced (Podder 427). For instance, the life expectancy at birth in Turkey according to OECD is 75 years, which is below the set 80 years by the organization. The environmental quality is also below the average set standards and in general. It means that Turks are less satisfied with their lives. They are 5.6 grades according to OECD, which is below the set 6.6 (Fox 80).
In the US, there have been cases in the past that have affected service to people with disabilities in education sector. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) have been adjusted over time to improve the quality of life for most of the disabled people. In 2009, IDEA authorized reimbursement for private special-education services when a public school fails to provide a FAPE and the private school placement is applicable, regardless of whether the child had initially received special-education services through the public school. Some of the cases that have had a significance influence on how people with disabilities are treated are School Comm. of Burlington v. Department of Ed. Of Mass. 471 U. S. 359 (1985). The court held that the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), 20 U. S. C.§1400 et seq., authorized a district court to order reimbursement of private school tuition and expenses to parents who took their disabled child from public school because the schools special education services did not meet the childs needs. This act brought significant change in the way service was offered to the disabled people. It held that if a child did not benefit from an education program, that child should be reimbursed costs.
In Tucker v. Bay Shore Union Free School Dist., 873 F. 2d 563, 568 (1989), the Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit held that parental placement in a private school cannot be proper under the Act unless the private school in question meets the standards of the state education agency. We granted certiorari, 507 U. S. (1993), to resolve this conflict among the Courts of Appeals. Work on legislations regarding disabled people is still continuing with amendments being made to the various acts that govern the way people with disabilities re to be treated and the quality of service that is to be offered to these people. In 1999, the US Supreme Court made a landmark decision in the Olmstead v. L.C. (Olmstead) case. It found that the unwarranted segregation of people with disabilities is unlawful under the ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act). The Department of Health plays an important role in enacting the ADA through civil rights laws and other vigorous campaigns aimed at improving the quality of life for people with disabilities.
The Consent Decree is a framework used by the state of Florida in compliance with civil rights laws for the education of English Language learner students. It addresses the rights of ELL students by providing a structure to facilitate the delivery of understandable instruction to which these students deserve. The decree protects the right of ELL students by identifying students with limited English learner capabilities and assessing them to ensure that they are provided with the right of services. It details procedures for placement of students in the English for Speakers of Other Languages ESOL program, their exit from the program an d monitoring of those students who had earlier exited. The decree states that all students attending Floridas public schools are to have programming that is adjusted to fit to their level of English adeptness, level of academic achievement, and any other special needs that the students may have. The decree ensures that ELL students have access to the necessary English language instruction as well as instructions in basic subject areas that are understandable students at a particular level of English adeptness. The instructions provided to these students should be comparable in sequence, scope, amount, and quality to those provided to non-ELL students.
The consent decree ensures that no students are at a disadvantage when offering education to students in Floridas public schools. All academic programs that are available to non-ELL students are also available to ELL students. The consent decree ensures that academic programs such as early childhood development and dropout prevention services are provided to all Florida residents. It details the necessary certification and in-service training teachers must have to qualify to teach ESOL students. The teachers must have passed through the necessary university programs or should work with providers of such services to ensure that they are qualified to handle such cases. It details specific standards that must be met by personnel delivering such services to Floridas public schools.
It is the work of The Florida Department of Education to monitor the various school districts under its jurisdiction to ensure that all aspects of the Consent decree are followed in compliance with State and Federal laws. The monitoring of the adherence to the consent decree is done by the SALA (Students Achievement through Language Acquisition), it falls under the division of Public Schools under the Florida Department of Education. The Florida Department of Education is tasked with developing an evaluation system that is used to measure the effectiveness of programs provided in compliance to the consent decree. The system is to have a data collection mechanism that is used data collection, the data acquired is used to measure the effectiveness of the program and compare the performance levels of both ELL students and non-ELL students. The system stores different students details such as retention rates of ELL students, graduation rates, dropout rates, grade point Averages (GPA) and state assessment scores.
Jonathan Swift became the leader of the Irish resistance to the English oppression in 1724.As a result of the injustices he witnessed on the Irish people by the British, it prompted him to write the beloved literary text A Modest Proposal. In it he uses a lot of stylistic devices, mainly satire, to make light of a serious issue that was happening in the country at the time, and at the same time making people aware of this issue thereby prompting them to take some form of action against these prejudices.
One of the major themes that are apparent in this text is that of economic disparity. It is very evident from the text that there is disparity in as far as distribution of wealth is concerned. On pg. 1114, Jonathan Swift begins his modest proposal by saying, It is a melancholy object to those who walk through this great town or travel in the country when they see the streets, the roads, and cabin doors, crowded with beggars of the female sex, followed by three, four, or six children, all in rags and importuning every passenger for an alms.(Greenblatt 1114).
Here he describes the poverty that is eminent among the Irish people; men women and children alike. On the extreme end, we have the rich people who are not only unconcerned for these despondent people of society but are actually disgusted and despise them greatly and only care about advancing their own lives. In one of Jonathan Swifts proposals on pg. 1117 he says,
the poorer tenants will have something valuable of their own which by law may be made liable to distress, and help to pay their landlords rent, their corn and cattle being already seized and money a thing unknown.(Greenblatt 1117). He also says on pg. 1116, I grant this food will be somewhat dear and therefore very proper for landlords, who, as they have already devoured most of the parents, seem to have the best title to the children.(Greenblatt 1116).Here Jonathan Swift has employed the use of metaphor where the word devour metaphorically refers to the economic exploitation of the poor by the rich, landlord used metaphorically to mean the upper crust of the society and parents and children being a representation of the poor and despondent people of society.
Another theme presented in this satirized text is that of imperialism. Many Irish men worked on farms that were owned by English men, who charged high rent. The Irish were frequently unable to pay them and as a result, most Irish people lived in starvation and poverty. People could not take care of their kids and the sight of begging children and mothers was unspeakable. Swift satirizes the English landlords with outrageous humor, proposing that Irish kids be sold as food at age one, when they are healthy and plump so as to give their parents a source of income which would in turn boost the economy and eliminate social problems. He says on pg. 1115, That the remaining hundred thousand may at a year old be offered in sale to the persons of quality and fortune through the kingdom, always advising the mother to let them suck plentifully in the last month, so as to render them plump and fat for a good table.(Greenblatt 1115). These proposals are quite atrocious and unimaginable but Jonathan Swift is very wise with his choice of words. He uses satire to spur the people to make amends and remedy the problem under discussion. Jonathan Swift used satire in presenting a solution to the problems of poverty and the general situation in England in his time thereby raising awareness to curtail the injustices that were being heaved upon the Irish people by the British.
Moreover another theme that is very eminent in the text is that of religion. We are told in pg. 1116,
therefore, reckoning a year after Lent, the markets will be more glutted than usual, because the number of popish infants is at least three to one in the kingdom; and therefore it will have one other collateral advantage, by lessening the number of papists among us.(Greenblatt 1116). The free online dictionary defines the word papist as a word, Used as a disparaging term for a Roman Catholic. From Jonathan Swifts biography it is unmistakable that he was not a huge fan of the Catholic religion. For example, he abandoned the Whigs because of their desire to repeal the Test Act, which required all holders of offices of state to take the sacrament according to the Anglican rites, thereby excluding Roman Catholics. It appears that the wealthy people of Britain are happy that the number of Catholics will decrease as a result of Jonathan Swifts proposal and thereby we see some form of antagonism going on between Catholics and Protestants. Here Jonathan Swift employs hyperbole as a stylistic device because he exaggerates the proposals that are supposed to help decrease the number of poor people in the society at the time.
This literary text does not reflect Christian values because there are a lot of injustices that are seen in it.In Galatians 3:28, the Bible says, there is neither Jew nor Gentile, neither slave nor free, nor is there male or female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus. We see from the text that the upper crust of the society treat the lower crust with a lot of degradation which is not how God would like us to treat our fellow man.Though Jonathan Swift employs stylistic devices such as hyperbole, some of the proposals that he puts forward in his text are dehumanizing and insinuate that the lower crust of society are less of a being and should therefore be sold to the rich people for food.
In addition to this there also seems to be a lot of antagonism between different religious groups, that is, Protestants and the Catholics. The Catholics are not treated with respect by the Protestants and this is not Gods ideal for how his creation should live together. He desires that we live together in harmony and treat each other with the love and esteem that God demands of us.